Firstly, assume that ther e exist two main chemical reactions, i.e., Accordingly, the present invention provides a heterogeneous catalytic process for the oxidation of phenols which comprises treating a solution of the phenol with an oxidant in the presence of Ti-superoxide (1) heterogeneous catalyst subsequently treating the mixture with water (5 ml) at 100° C. and then terminating the reaction by bringing the reaction mixture to room temperature, extracting the product by conventional methods like solvent extraction and purifying by conventional methods to obtain the oxidized phenol. and heated for 1 h. The catalyst was recovered by simple filtration and 1,4-benzoquinone formed (88%) was separated by chromatographic purification. D. (HCl—ZnCl2) is lucas reagent, lucas reagent react with alcohol however it does not react with primary alcohol but readily gives turbidity with tertiary alcohols.a) Reaction with (HCl—ZnCl2):Butan-1-ol is primary alcohol thus no reaction occur.where as 2-methyl butan-2-ol is tertiary alcohol, it forms 2-chloro-2-methylbutane. Step 2: Then treat the above mixture with a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric cid. and heated for 1 h. After this, water (5 ml) was added and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 6 h. The catalyst was recovered by simple filtration and 1,4-hydroquinone formed (63%) was separated by chromatographic purification. Downstream Processing Strategies for Lignin‐First Biorefinery. We selected acidic HZSM‐5 with Si/Al=15 as a transalkylation catalyst. Lignin is the largest renewable source of aromatics, which explains the substantial interest from the chemical industry.1 Many different methods have already been explored to depolymerize the recalcitrant polyphenolic network of lignin into aromatic monomers.2 Among these, the lignin‐first process (LFP) stands out in terms of the high yield of monomers (in the form of alkylmethoxyphenols), using optimized catalysts to cleave the linkages that bind lignin fragments to hemicellulose and lignin intralinkages.3 Because the market demand for these alkylmethoxyphenols is relatively small, it is desirable to convert them into bulk chemical building blocks.4 For instance, Song et al. described an approach to convert 2‐methoxy‐4‐propylphenol to terephthalic acid through demethoxylation, carbonylation, and oxidation.5 Other than terephthalic acid, the removal of the methoxy functionalities and alkyl side groups can give access to phenol, which is a valuable intermediate in the manufacture of agrochemicals, detergents, plastics, pharmaceuticals, dyes, and plasticizers.6 We earlier explored a combination of hydrodemethoxylation (HDMeO) and transalkylation of the alkyl groups to a benzene co‐reactant to obtain phenol from the same lignin model compound in a one‐step approach.7 Full conversion of 2‐methoxy‐4‐propylphenol, representative for guaiacol‐type alkylmethoxylphenols obtained from LFP, was achieved with a reasonable phenol yield of 60 %. Herein, we report a general method to directly convert a broad range of phenols into the corresponding primary anilines with the cheap and widely available hydrazine as both amine and hydride sources with simple Pd/C as the catalyst. The catalytic performance of these differently reduced MoP/SiO2 catalysts was evaluated in combination with HZSM‐5 for the conversion of 2‐methoxy‐4‐propylphenol to phenol. Engl. and heated for 2 h. After this, water (5 ml) was added and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 8 h. The catalyst was recovered by simple filtration and 1,4-hydroquinone formed (20%) was separated by chromatographic purification. The bifunctional catalytic approach combined HDMeO catalyzed by Au/TiO2 and transalkylation of the propyl side group to benzene with a zeolite catalyst. MoP/SiO2 was identified as the most promising metal phosphide because the product yield was 88 mol % without touching the aromatic ring. Although the product distribution was promising and aromaticity was retained, this catalyst suffered from severe deactivation. These products have particular value in the current context because they can be converted to phenol by oxidation.17 Toluene and xylenes were other reaction products, which were most likely obtained by alkylation of benzene with methanol derived from the removal of the methoxy group as well as isomerization reactions of cumene and n‐propylbenzene. Ti-superoxide catalyst was synthesized (Scheme 1) in our laboratory and successfully used for oxidation of amplifies to nitro compounds [Angew. This leads to an additional raw material consumption and separation issue.
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