Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one, although Egyptian writing does make a sudden appearance at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. That was Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World by Nicholas Oster. The "Slavic runes" from the 7th and 8th centuries AD, mentioned by a few medieval authors, may have been such a system. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. David N. Keightley, Noel Barnard. As you can see, the poster traces the evolution of our modern Latin alphabet back to what is known as Proto-Sinaitic. Last edited on 22 November 2020, at 22:13, List of languages by first written accounts, "The Origins and Early Development of Writing in Egypt", Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature, "Anyang writing and the origin of the Chinese writing system", "Writing May Be Oldest in Western Hemisphere", Cyclopedia of Biblical, theological, and ecclesiastical literature, "On the nature of joint strength in paper-A review of dry and wet strength resins used in paper manufacturing". Circa 1800 BC. Within four centuries of the finds in King Scorpion’s tomb, hieroglyphs and Hieratic (a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian) developed a full range of characters. Language is not an invention. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languages, Latin, and other languages. But knowledge of how to use the tablets had already been lost by that time.  Similar use has been seen in hollow cylinders, or prisms of six or eight sides, formed of fine terra cotta, sometimes glazed, on which the characters were traced with a small stylus, in some specimens so minutely as to be capable of decipherment only with the aid of a magnifying-glass.. They show features similar to early hieroglyphic forms. Snakes are considered tetrapods even though they don’t have any limbs – their ancestors did once upon a time, but in the meantime the animals evolved a different means of locomotion. A high urban culture flourished for 700 years, between 2600 and 1900 BC, at which point the cities declined. From 2900 BC, these began to be impressed in wet clay with a reed stylus, making wedge-shaped marks which are now known as cuneiform. Cretan hieroglyphs are found on artifacts of Crete (early-to-mid-2nd millennium BC, MM I to MM III, overlapping with Linear A from MM IIA at the earliest). McCarter, P. Kyle. But Shang readers would not be able to read present-day Chinese and the majority of the characters on the oracle bones remain undeciphered. A conventional "proto-writing to true writing" system follows a general series of developmental stages: The best known picture writing system of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols are: In the Old World, true writing systems developed from neolithic writing in the Early Bronze Age (4th millennium BC). Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand. though whether to writing on lead, or filling up the hollow of the letters with lead, is not certain. Mortimer Wheeler recognises the style of writing as boustrophedon, where "this stability suggests a precarious maturity.". They functioned as mnemonic devices, guiding readers through the narratives of texts without relying on the linguistic background of the given audience. Writing is an altogether different and artificial thing. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing were gradually replaced around 2700–2500 BC by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but developed to include phonetic elements by the 29th century BC.
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